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Audio or video downloads

Music downloads are available from a range of different services including iTunes, Amazon, Spotify and the band's or artist's website. When you have downloaded music onto an edevice, you may find it helpful to add a general statement at the end of your reference list informing your tutor that the track(s) is (are) available on your edevice.

NB Different guidelines are available for Audiobooks.

Citation order:
  • Author/singer/artist (if available; if not use title first)
  • Year of distribution (in round brackets)
  • Title of recording/video (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Downloaded: date)
In-text citation

Their highly acclaimed album (The Civil Wars, 2012) ...

Reference list

The Civil Wars (2012) Barton Hollow. Available at: (Downloaded: 5 August 2012).

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Author/singer/artist (Year of distribution) Title of recording/video. Available at: URL (Downloaded: date).
Select your text and then click here to italicise
Harvard (author-date)

You're viewing the Harvard (author-date) referencing system.

Student reading in library

To learn more about using the Harvard referencing system, try the resources below.

Harvard: general guidance